A new study examined the extent of which motivation and self-efficacy changed during treatment for alcohol addiction. The study looked at what degree to which these variables affecting drinking behavior. This has resulted in the conclusion that treatment designed to specific subgroups of people may be more effective. “There are a number of different ways to talk about motivation,” said J. Kim Penberthy, the author of the study. “We decided to focus on motivation in the form of stages of change and self-efficacy. The model we are using conceptualizes motivation as a level of readiness to change and self-efficacy as a combination of temptation to drink alcohol and confidence to abstain from drinking.” It is hoped that this will influence how treatment for alcohol addiction is designed.